Friday, May 22, 2020
Diabetic patients are at risk for numerous comorbidities, including infections of the feet that could lead to amputation. In the U.S. diabetes effects more than 29 million people and is the leading cause for lower limb amputations (Ã¢â¬Å"Center for Disease Control and PreventionÃ¢â¬ , 2016). In addition, approximately 20% need some type of amputation after getting an infected foot ulcer (Wu, Driver, Wrobel, Armstrong, 2007). Moreover, when a patient has a surgical procedure they require various elements in their healthcare experience in order to receive what they perceive as quality care. In diabetic adults undergoing an amputation of the toe or forefoot, what is the effect of involving patients in their treatment plan, while maintaining adequate pain relief for the patient, on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of quality care compared with patients who are uninvolved in their treatment plan and pain relief is not achieved? In a research study, a group of adult diabetics were given a questionnaire about their perception of the care they received after having an amputation of an infected foot ulcer. Among the thirty patients surveyed, 83% reported effective pain relief was the most important issue while receiving care (Mehica, Gershater, Roijer, p.94). Therefore, controlling the pain of a patient improves the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of quality care while staying in a hospital. In addition, 77% of the participants in the study were not able to speak in private to the physician or nurse duringShow MoreRelatedSymptoms And Treatment Of Diabetic Patients2555 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesIn clinical scenario, the nurses often encounter such questions from diabetic patients as Ã¢â¬ËCan I take soy food to reduce my blood sugar level?Ã¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËCan soy food prevent diabetes?Ã¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËDoes eating soy food really work for my diabetic condition?Ã¢â¬â¢ Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases with significant morbidity and mortality, which has become a global-wide health challenge (Shaw, Sicree, Zimmet, 2010). Management for type 2 diabetes is complicated and it is moreRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of A Diabetic Patient With Cancer Patients913 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthat many include the liver. Current treatment for CRC involves the use of surgery, chemotherapy as well as radiation. Generally surgery is considered first line treatment for CRC in which the affected portion of the colon is removed. Since hyperglycemia in a diabetic patient with CRC is associated with unfavorable disease progression, patients can still undergo surgical and chemotherapy treatment to achieve remission. However, recent studies suggest in patients with hyperglycemia, even after havingRead MoreA Brief Note On Diabetes And Diabetes Mellitus1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfail to properly respond to insulin. The third type of diabetes, referred to as gestational diabetes, happens when an expectant woman without any past diagnosis of diabetes develops high sugar level in her blood. The forth type is a collection of diabetic conditions characterized by insufficient insulin secretion and caused by different bodily defects. It can damage the health of the unborn baby. For example, it can lead to high birth weight, anomalies in the unborn babyÃ¢â¬â¢s central nervous system,Read MoreDiabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Essay1619 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDiabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common microvascular complications in diabetes and can result in foot ulceration, ampuation and an impaired quality of life(Carrington AL, et al 2002,Boulton AJ,et al 2004). The reported prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy ranges from 16% to as high as 66%2 and its prevelance is believed to increase with the duration of diabetes and poor glucose control.(Boulton AJ.et al 2000) ItÃ¢â¬â¢s accounts for 5 0Ã¢â¬â75% of non-traumatic amputations inRead MoreFever Manifestation853 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfebrile, with a temperature of 38.9 degrees C. (102 degrees F) . With infection, fever is a common symptom. Fever speeds up metabolic needs by 7% for each 1Ã ° F increase (13% for each 1Ã ° C increase) ( Copstead Banasik , 2010 ). Her left lower leg is observed to be red and swollen, with calf measurement on left 3 inches greater than right lower extremity. Cardinal signs and symptoms of inflammation are dolor (pain), calor (heat), rubor (redness), tumor (swelling) (Britannica.com,Read MorePathophysiology Of Type II Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus1575 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin older adults, patients who are overweight, and patient with metabolic disorders. It can happen at any age though. The tissues in the body have built some resistance to insulin. The insulin levels in these patients can vary from low to high and can also be normal. You might be at risk of developing Non-insulin dependent diabetes if you have a family history diabetes, being obese, not exercising enough, and your age. Rosdahl (2012) notes that Non-insulin dependent diabetes patients do not need insulinRead MoreTaking a Look at Peripheral Neuropathy1118 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesour general population of the USA, the amount people in risk of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is also expected to increase. In our case we are dealing with diabetic peripheral neuropathy that results from nerve damage due to the high blood glucose levels diabetics. About 60 to 70 percent of people who have had diabetes for many years have some form of nerve damage, but not everyone has symptoms. (Inzucchi, 2012) Common types of diabetic neuropathy are those that affect the limbs along with the organsRead MorePatients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus878 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAmerican female diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, hypertension, kidney disease, hyperlipidemia and hypothyroidism. She is on glipizide 5 mg po daily to treat her type 2 diabetes. Cynthia revisited the clinic soon after the initiation of the treatment with symptoms of shakiness, sweating, chills, clamminess, lightheadedness and moderately severe headache. In this case study, Cynthia is exhibiting the symptoms of hypoglycemia as she is on sulfonylurea therapy. SulfonylureasRead MoreThe Most Important M ethod Control And Prevent Diabetic Complications1436 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The most important method to control and prevent diabetic complications is self- care. In order to manage their diabetes successfully and reduce risk factors leading to mortality and morbidity associated with diabetes related complications, patients must acquire and maintain self-management skills for achieving adequate glycemic control, blood lipids and blood pressure as well as weight management. Successful management of diabetes requires patientÃ¢â¬â¢s and familyÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness in achieving and maintainingRead MoreLife And Looking Into Treatment For A Chronic Illness Without Cure Essay1262 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswith type one diabetes (T1D) and work daily to maintain a body that not create its own energy (US Department of Health and Human Services 3). Reviewing the history, discussing the symptoms, exploring a day in the life and looking into treatment for a chronic illness without cure will give us and outlook on advanced treatment and a potential cure for those living with type one. Type one diabetes is an autoimmune disease, commonly diagnosed in children and young adults, in which an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s pancreas
Saturday, May 9, 2020
This story is D. H. Lawrences most grounded prosecution of realism and his most grounded exhibition of the contrariness of the adoration for cash and the affection for individuals. In Pauls troubled family, his folks marriage is inadmissible. His mom is sexually baffled: She had bonny youngsters, yet she felt they had been pushed onto her. Clearly, she feels not satisfied, but rather disregarded. The story tends to a couple of the subjects Lawrence is most exceptional forÃ¢â¬âwell, some of them in any occasion. While it does exclude the same unequivocal sexuality that made Lawrence notorious in his day, much like Sons and Lovers, The Rocking-Horse Winner focuses an impressive sum on the association between a mother and her tyke. TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The disappointment influenced profound lines to come into her face. Preadolescent kid, who should feel adequately secure in his moms adoration and in the solidness of his family with the goal that he can look for outside connections and leave individually sexual course, is captured in his improvement. Stuck in an Oedipal spot with his mom, he relapses from immature sexuality into sexual infantilism. Rather than riding his own particular stallion, image of male sexual power, he rides a shaking horse, a movement that, in its free for all and seclusion, recommends masturbation as opposed to satisfaction with an accomplice. To offer and to get love, the main genuine satisfaction in life, is, as Lawrence brings up, to identify with yet never to control another person: The cherished one generally stays puzzling, obscure, erratic. Therefore, cherish, uninhibitedly given and got, is the precise inverse of Pauls urgent need to know, to compel learning, and to foresee whats to come. They took a gander at her coldly, as though they were discovering deficiency w ith her. Whats more, speedily, she fondled she should cover some blame in herself. However what it was that she should conceal, she never knew. In The Horse Dealers Daughter, images are utilized to satisfy the mission of bliss and love. This romantic tale has numerous images, which indicate shrouded meaning. One can completely comprehend a story, in theShow MoreRelatedLiterary Analysis Of The Rocking Horse Winner819 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDaniel Moos ENGL 1302 Prof. Heflin 7/14/17 Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ In the short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse Winner,Ã¢â¬ by D.H. Lawrence, the use of many literary elements creates an enticing and inspirational approach to how the story is told. These literary elements help to form the story throughout the beginning, middle, and end. The ones that mostly develop the story are point of view, tone and style, and symbol. The story begins in an omniscient point of view or third person to makeRead MoreThe Rocking Horse Winner Literary Analysis728 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Significance of The Rocking Horse Winner (An Analysis of Three Messages From Rocking Horse Winner By D. H Lawrence) D. H Lawrence was the author of The Rocking Horse Winner, which was one of his most famous stories, published in 1926. D.H Lawrence was intrigued with fate and destiny of life. The story was based around a young boy with intense amounts of determination because he felt he had to please his mother. D. H Lawrence expresses the conflict of economics and family, causing issues atRead MoreThe Rocking Horse Winner Literary Analysis1048 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdemonstrated in D. H. LawrenceÃ¢â¬â¢s short story The Rocking Horse Winner, where the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ singular focus on continuously earning money culminates in a situation where they are never genuinely satisfied. HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on constantly spending to maintain an outer appearance of wealth only serves to further stress herself; moreover, PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s wish to please his mother ultimately results in him dying from his growing stress. In The Rocking Horse Winner, Lawrence uses the motivations and actions of theRead MoreAn alysis Of The Rocking Horse Winner And The Lottery772 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAn Analysis exploring the irony in Ã¢â¬Å"The Ã¢â¬Å"Rocking-Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Ã¢â¬Å"LotteryÃ¢â¬ Often times an author will use irony as a literally technique to throw a twist in his story, whereby allowing the outcome of it to be completely different from what the reader expected. In D.H. LawrenceÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ and Shirley JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Lottery,Ã¢â¬ Mrs. Hutchinson and Paul, despite their motivation, are victims of misguided reasoning, resulting in the irony of each characterÃ¢â¬â¢s demise. In fact, eachRead MorePortfolio Writing Review And Reflection893 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespossible. My argument analysis titled, Ã¢â¬Å"The Art of Liberal ArtsÃ¢â¬ , allowed me to use several different sources for writing assistance. I used the Smartthinking website and I also went to the Germanna Student Tutoring Service. Working with a live student to help me with my essay was most beneficial because I could explain my thought processes better and I could develop my ideas more thoroughly. This assignment was especially difficult as I struggled to write an effective analysis without summarizingRead MoreHorace Gregory s Short ( But Perfectly Formed D. H. Lawrence : Pilgrim Of The Apocalypse10205 Words Ã |Ã 41 PagesLawrenceÃ¢â¬â¢s theories about the role of the mother and her influence on masculine development must therefore have been coloured by other reading. Some of what Lawrence had read up to this point is documented by Jessie Chambers. Within her chapter Ã¢â¬ËLiterary Information,Ã¢â¬â¢ she details the reading course that she and Lawrence embarked on. It is as eclectic as it is varied. Her intention is not to demonstrate LawrenceÃ¢â¬â¢s intellectualism but to explain how through his reading he Ã¢â¬Ëseemed to be groping forRead MoreAmerican Slang Essay 115481 Words Ã |Ã 62 Pagesslang The affiliations of American slang with dialect, cant, low speech, general colloquialisms, are infinitely more difficult to demarcate than they are in English, although it is easy enough to set the slang apart from the standard and the literary language. Dialect in America is a very different thing from dialect in England. Of the three chief characteristics of American the first is its receptivity, the second its productivity, and the third its uniformity, so that dialects, properlyRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesLine 58 Understanding and Appreciating Individual Differences Important Areas of Self-Awareness 61 Emotional Intelligence 62 Values 65 Ethical Decision Making and Values 72 Cognitive Style 74 Attitudes Toward Change 76 Core Self-Evaluation 79 SKILL ANALYSIS 84 Cases Involving Self-Awareness 84 Communist Prison Camp 84 Computerized Exam 85 Decision Dilemmas 86 SKILL PRACTICE 89 Exercises for Improving Self-Awareness Through Self-Di sclosure 89 Through the Looking Glass 89 Diagnosing Managerial Characteristics
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Target dates for review and completion. How have I chosen these dates? Efficient team 22ND June 2012 -will be management with a target date to review on improved communication my communication skills skills. As I would have ended The aptitude to feel self- my two terms by then assured on message sent and will be confident in out and also, receiving a communicating in form page | 3 (Refer appendix 1 and Ask for feedback from 3) tutors and peers to attain level of proficiency on the assignments for written kills and on presentations for oral skills. We will write a custom essay sample on Personal development Plan or any similar topic only for you Order Now Refer learning journal IX) Ones, Marcella) will help me to update my knowledge. So, as to be a part of discussions in group activities and presentations Other than from the books and links informed by tutor I believe I should widen my knowledge by reading reference books like Reduce Stress with Increased AssertivenessÃ¢â¬â¢s By Elizabeth Scott, M. S. Message without any barriers. Of assignments and presentations. It will be the time close to my internship which will necessitate me to highly have this skill. Personal management skills Planning and Organizing the activities and most crucial managing time along with it. Solidification at all times is vital to achieve end goals (Refer appendix ) The constant feedback from peers and tutors will help in excelling on outcomes which will reflect upon my planning and organizing skills. (refer learning journal Ill) Keeping the time frame as crucial aspect a constant awareness in managing time will be important to accomplish assignments in Completing a task in time and without rushing them for last minute of submission deadlines. This can be motivating to attain the personal managing skills and their implication in further goal at study and at work in future. 2ND Appraisal-Which is end on first term. By then could reflect back on to the shortcomings in first term which may include delay in submissions or working till last minute. I would than use these as motivational circumstances for terms ahead and prioritize my time more efficiently. In one of the knowledge cast We Were taught on important/urgent grid, than applied this model in relevance of the tasks had to do with their priorities. This grid can be implemented in studies and at work as it helps to accomplish the goals set in time (Refer Page | 4 appendix 5) a comfortable time span. Presentations are time sensitive as well which needs peers to time us during the rehearsals can help managing. Reading books like Ã¢â¬Å"Getting Things Done by David AllenÃ¢â¬ on personal management other than allocated text books can be initiative on enhancing these skills. Cognitive Skills The articles and case Studying in depth the Critical Thinking and studies provided during theories and models, then Analyzing of all the the course of seminars writing an assignment on readings that are and group activity will same will make us think done. Analyzing and elf to portray on critically when presenting making subject matter in depth. Our ideas. Recommendations as a The specific time bound Also, studying case studies part of critical reading case studies will help us like one done in module , writing (Refer critically taking notes International Business appendix 1) on thinking of it. Strategy based on During the final answer Licensing of Subway will on case study, it will be make us think critically on important to think the business strategies critically in order to incorporated in an The clear idea while presenting and the accuracy of case study answers shows critical thinking. The discussions in seminars on various theories can be criticized with consistency in them. 1 5th Jejunely-Near to finish line of second semester will mark the decision on depth of my critical thinking with the final task at hand to submit. Over this period at seminars we will come through to various case studies and theories to analyze which will further enrich the critical in depth thinking to be part of all my readings in Page | 5 Team Working Skills: motivation and management all the colleagues of the group and keep them motivated to attain the final goals. Refer learning journal IV) come to final decision and make suggestions to company. (Refer learning journal VI) organization. Even read articles from recommended readings by tutors and critically analyze them like What Great managers Do? L Concentrate on each group members performance and as a group leader helping them with adequate feedback to attain the high assessment outcomes. Attend the various workshops on management at CUL. Participating in various group tasks at university like Ã¢â¬Å"Synergy Business ChallengeÃ¢â¬ where working as team to make profits as business was To comprise appropriate knowledge of ways to attain self motivation I will read books like Ã¢â¬Å"You Can WinÃ¢â¬ by Ship Cheer and also, book my place for seminars on motivation and management at CUL by tutors and external Professionals who share their experience to make it more relevant in understanding. How to cite Personal development Plan, Papers Personal Development Plan Free Essays Personal Development Plan: Guidance notes Ã¢â¬Å"Personal development planning enables individuals to take charge of their own learning. Learning becomes a proactive as well as reactive process, designed and prioritised to support immediate development needs as well as longer term ambitionsÃ¢â¬  A Personal Development Plan (PDP) enables learners to identify key areas of learning and development activity that will enable them to either acquire new or develop existing skills and behavioural attributes for the following purposes: enhance performance in their current role Ã¢â¬ ¢ address anticipated changes in their current role Ã¢â¬ ¢ address career aspirations towards a future role Prior to completing the Personal Development Plan (scroll down to next page(s) for a template to complete), the learner should undertake a skills analysis activity to determine their learning and development needs and identify development objectives to meet those needs. View the following links for too ls to help you do this: http://www. We will write a custom essay sample on Personal Development Plan or any similar topic only for you Order Now admin. cam. ac. uk/offices/hr/cppd/career/planning/#now We recommend that the personal development planning process should be undertaken initially by the learner followed by discussion and agreement with their manager. It is recommended that this process should take place annually and ideally should form part of the Staff Development and Review (Appraisal) process. However, it can be equally valuable when undertaken as a stand-alone activity. The personal development planning process should ideally begin at the point at which the learner is new to their role and undertaking their induction. The process can then continue throughout their employment at the University. Personal Development Plan: Key to terminology used in template Development Objectives are objectives that you have identified to enable you to meet the learning and development needs identified at the skills analysis stage Priority identifies whether your development objective is: Ã¢â¬ ¢ critical to your current role Ã¢â¬ ¢ beneficial but non-critical to your current role Ã¢â¬ ¢ critical to your progressing in to future role Ã¢â¬ ¢ beneficial but non-critical to progressing in to future role Activities can constitute any learning or development activity that will enable you to achieve your development ojectives e. . formal training, on-the-job training, work-shadowing another colleague etc. Support/Resources describe what you need to help you achieve your development objectives. Typically this would involve support from your manager, department or colleague to enable you to undertake a learning or development activity such as allowing you time away from your role or funding from your department. Target and Actual dates state when you intend to achieve your development objectives followed by the date you actually achieve them. Data in these columns is particularly useful when you review your PDP as it will enable you to identify any factors that may have prevented you from achieving your development objectives on the target date and build in contingencies to prevent this from occurring in the future. Review date states when you will review progress on your Personal Development Plan. Assuming that you undergo the personal development process annually, we recommend that you review your PDP every six months therefore enabling you to: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assess your progress Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reflect on your learning Identify whether your development objectives need to be amended Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify factors that may have prevented you from achieving your development objectives Ã¢â¬ ¢ Build in contingencies to enable you (where possible) to meet your agreed target date in the future Personal Development Plan: Template |What are my development |Priority |What activities do I need to undertake to |What support/resources do I need to ach ieve my |Target date for achieving my |Actual date of achieving my | |objectives? | |achieve my objectives? objectives |objectives |objectives | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Review Date: | | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â  AUA Postgraduate Certificate in Professional Practice (Higher Education Administration and Management (OUVA) How to cite Personal Development Plan, Papers
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Has insulting become a Nowadays the use of swear-words has become a normal form of speech among population, and probably even more extensive among teenagers. The reasons why insulting is so widespread in modern society may range substantially amongst the different social groups in which society is stratified. It is clear that nowadays insulting might seem to be more natural than some decades before, but this fact becomes very clear once we take into account the evolution concerned to freedom of speech. This aspect does not mean that insulting is something new in todays culture; using swear words in our daily speech is as ancient as life itself, but because of the abovementioned freedom of speech, we are used to hearing or reading this part of our vocabulary in any circumstance, whether on television or on radio or on any situation. One of the main means for the use and, consequently, for the learning of these words is television. We will write a custom essay sample on Insulting: Language and Swear Words or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is almost impossible not to watch a film or a television aerogram in which a swear word is not mentioned.It is on television where people learn not only the meaning of swear words but also the situation In which has to, or might, be used. A very different aspect is to try to analyses whether insulting has become a habit In our society or Just a mean of showing different emotions before a particular situation. Insulting Is not Just using words with more or less strength in their meaning, but it also Implies a deliberate Increase in the tone of the utterance.By intensifying the tone of our speech when we Insult means an attempt to let clear the seriousness of our Intimidation or threaten. To affirm that Insulting has turned out to be a habit In the use of language In modern society might represent a risky statement, but It Is clear that Is not unusual or strange to hear these sorts of words In any situation because all In all they are part of the richness of our vocabulary. What should be analyses Is to try to explain to what extend the use of these words are necessary.
Friday, March 20, 2020
The continuing foreign control over much of china, and ever-increasing influence of Japan doomed china for a state of political and social destress from 1911 to communist victory of 1914
The continuing foreign control over much of china, and ever-increasing influence of Japan doomed china for a state of political and social destress from 1911 to communist victory of 1914 On January first, 1912 the Republic of China was established, signaling the end of the Manchu-dominated Qing Empire. Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang, was proclaimed provisional president of the republic. However, Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who had defected to the revolutionary cause, soon forced Sun to step aside and took the presidency for himself. For the years to come up until the Communist Victory in 1949, the Country of China was faced with various levals of policital distress. Increasing pressure from neighbour Japan, as well as the selfish betrayal of the Republics well being by political leaders Yuan Shikai and Chiang Kaishek lead to a testing time for the Country.Thanks to strong military backup, Yuan was officially swarn in as President of the Chinese Republic on the 10th of October 1913. He had gradually dissolved the provincial and national paliaments thus leaving him the unchallanged dictator of China.Yuan Shikai sworn in as Provisional President of t...Yuan was Th e President of the Republic of China for a short period of time, due to his death at age fifty-six of Kidney failture on June 6th 1915. Athough he was head of the Republic for around three years, This period of time was a major factor in China's social and political destress starting with World War One and The Twenty One Demands from their neighbouring island Japan.During The First World War only Japan had joined the war with the Allies against Germany and Austria-Hungry, thus meant Japan was in a position to seize the concessions that Germany had in China.Yuan Shi-kai was anxious to establish himself as an emperor and thorght the support of Japan would help him reach his goals. When Japan fronted the Twenty One Demands in 1915 he accepted the main demands, resulting in nationwide protest. The Chinese people were outraged when...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
The Black Codes and Why They Matter Today ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to understand why African Americans are incarcerated at higher rates than other groups without knowing what the black codes were. These restrictive and discriminatory laws criminalized blacks after slavery and set the stage for Jim Crow. They are also directly linked to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s prison industrial complex. Given this, a better grasp of the Black Codes and their relationship to the 13th Amendment provides a historical context for racial profiling, police brutality, and uneven criminal sentencing. For far too long, blacks have been dogged by the stereotype that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re inherently prone to criminality. The institution of slavery and the Black Codes that followed reveal how the state essentially penalized African Americans just for existing. Slavery Ended, but Blacks WerenÃ¢â¬â¢t Truly Free During Reconstruction, the period that followed the Civil War, African Americans in the South continued to have work arrangements and living conditions nearly indistinguishable from those they had during slavery. Because the cost of cotton was so high at this time, planters decided to develop a labor system that mirrored servitude. According to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s History to 1877, Vol. 1: Ã¢â¬Å"On paper, emancipation had cost the slave owners about $3 billion - the value of their capital investment in former slaves - a sum that equaled nearly three-fourths of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economic production in 1860. The real losses of planters, however, depended on whether they lost control of their former slaves. Planters attempted to reestablish that control and to substitute low wages for the food, clothing, and shelter that their slaves had previously received. They also refused to sell or rent land to blacks, hoping to force them to work for low wages.Ã¢â¬ The enactment of the 13th Amendment only amplified the challenges of African Americans during Reconstruction. Passed in 1865, this amendment ended the slave economy, but it also included a provision that would make it in the SouthÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest to arrest and imprison blacks. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s because the amendment prohibited slavery and servitude, Ã¢â¬Å"except as a punishment for crime.Ã¢â¬ This provision gave way to the Black Codes, which replaced the Slave Codes, and were passed throughout the South the same year as the 13th Amendment. The codes heavily infringed on the rights of blacks and, like low wages, functioned to trap them in a slave-like existence. The codes were not the same in every state but overlapped in a number of ways. For one, they all mandated that blacks without jobs could be arrested for vagrancy. The Mississippi Black Codes in particular penalized blacks for being Ã¢â¬Å"wanton in conduct or speech, neglect[ing] job or family, handl[ing] money carelessly, and ...all other idle and disorderly persons.Ã¢â¬ How exactly does a police officer decide how well a person handles money or if heÃ¢â¬â¢s wanton in conduct? Clearly, many of the behaviors punishable under the Black Codes were completely subjective. But their subjective nature made it easier to arrest and round up African Americans. In fact, a variety of states concluded that there were certain crimes for which only blacks could be Ã¢â¬Å"duly convicted,Ã¢â¬ according to The Angela Y. Davis Reader. Therefore, the argument that the criminal justice system works differently for whites and blacks can be traced back to the 1860s. And before the Black Codes criminalized African Americans, the legal system deemed runaway slaves fugitives for stealing property - themselves!Ã Fines, Forced Labor, and the Black Codes Violating one of the Black Codes required offenders to pay fines. Since many African Americans were paid low wages during Reconstruction or denied employment at all, coming up with the money for these fees all too often proved impossible. Inability to pay meant that the county court could hire out African Americans to employers until they worked off their balances. Blacks who found themselves in this unfortunate predicament usually did such labor in a slavery-like environment. The state determined when offenders worked, for how long and what kind of work was performed. More often than not, African Americans were required to perform agricultural labor, just as they had during slavery. Because licenses were required for offenders to perform skilled labor, few did. With these restrictions, blacks had little chance to learn a trade and move up the economic ladder once their fines were settled. And they could not simply refuse to work off their debts, as that would lead to a vagrancy charge, resulting in more fees and forced labor. Under the Black Codes, all African Americans, convicts or not, were subject to curfews set by their local governments. Even their day-to-day movements were heavily dictated by the state. Black farm workers were required to carry passes from their employers, and meetings blacks took part in were overseen by local officials. This even applied to worship services. In addition, if a black person wanted to live in town, they had to have a white sponsor. Any African Americans who skirted the Black Codes would be subject to fines and labor. In short, in all areas of life, blacks lived as second class citizens. They were emancipated on paper but certainly not in real life. A civil rights bill passed by Congress in 1866 sought to give African Americans more rights. The bill, for example, permitted them to own or rent property, but it stopped short of giving blacks the right to vote. It did, however, allow them to make contracts and bring their cases before courts. It also enabled federal officials to sue those who violated the civil rights of African Americans. But blacks never reaped the benefits of the bill because President Andrew Johnson vetoed it.Ã While the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision dashed the hopes of African Americans, their hopes were renewed when the 14th Amendment was enacted. This legislation gave blacks even more rights than the Civil Rights Act of 1966 did. It declared them and anyone born in the United States to be citizens. Although it did not guarantee blacks the right to vote, itÃ gave them Ã¢â¬Å"equal protection of the laws.Ã¢â¬ The 15th Amendment, passed in 1870, would give blacks suffrage. The End of the Black Codes By the end of the 1860s, many Southern states repealed the Black Codes and shifted their economic focus away from cotton farming and onto manufacturing. They built schools, hospitals, infrastructure and asylums for orphans and the mentally ill. Although the lives of African Americans were no longer dictated by the Black Codes, they lived separately from whites, with fewer resources for their schools and communities. They also faced intimidation by white supremacist groups such as the Ku Klux Klan when they exercised their right to vote. The economic woes blacks faced led to an increasing number of them to be incarcerated. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s because more penitentiaries in the South were built along with all of the hospitals, roads, and schools. Strapped for cash and unable to get loans from banks, former slaves worked as sharecroppers or tenant farmers. This involved working other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s farmland in exchange for a small cut of the value of the crops grown. Sharecroppers frequently fell prey to shopkeepers who offered them credit but charged exorbitant interest rates on farm supplies and other goods. Democrats at the time made matters worse by passing laws that allowed merchants to prosecute sharecroppers who couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay their debts. Ã¢â¬Å"Indebted African American farmers faced imprisonment and forced labor unless they toiled on the land according to the instructions of the merchant-creditor,Ã¢â¬ states AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s History. Ã¢â¬Å"Increasingly, merchants and landlords cooperated to maintain this lucrative system, and many landlords became merchants. The former slaves had become trapped in the vicious circle of debt peonage, which tied them to the land and robbed them of their earnings.Ã¢â¬ Angela Davis laments the fact that black leaders of the time, such as Frederick Douglass, did not campaign to end forced labor and debt peonage. Douglass primarily focused his energies on bringing an end to lynching. He also advocated for black suffrage. Davis asserts that he may not have considered forced labor a priority due to the widespread belief that incarcerated blacks must have deserved their punishments. But African Americans complained that they were frequently jailed for offenses for which whites were not. In fact, whites usually eluded prison for all but the most egregious crimes. This resulted in blacks jailed for petty offenses being incarcerated with dangerous white convicts. Black women and children were not spared from prison labor. Children as young as 6 years old wereÃ forced to work, and incredibly women in such predicaments were not segregated from male inmates, making them vulnerable to sexual abuse and physical violence at the hands of both convicts and guards. After taking a trip to the South in 1888, Douglass witnessed firsthand the effects of forced labor on the African Americans there. It kept blacks Ã¢â¬Å"firmly bound in a strong, remorseless and deadly grasp, a grasp from which only death can free [them],Ã¢â¬ he noted. But by the time Douglass made this conclusion, peonage and convict leasing had been in effect for more than 20 years in certain places. And in a short stretch of time, the number of black prisoners grew rapidly. From 1874 to 1877, AlabamaÃ¢â¬â¢s prison population tripled, for example. Ninety percent of new convicts were African American. Crimes formerly considered low-level offenses, such as cattle theft, were reclassified as felonies, ensuring that impoverished blacks found guilty of such crimes would be sentenced to longer prison terms. African American scholar W.E.B. DuBois was disturbed by these developments in the prison system. In his work, Black Reconstruction, he observed, Ã¢â¬Å"The whole criminal system came to be used as a method of keeping Negroes at work and intimidating them. Consequently there began to be a demand for jails and penitentiaries beyond the natural demand due to the rise of crime.Ã¢â¬ Legacy of the Black Codes Lives On Today a disproportionate amount of black men are behind bars. In 2016, the Washington Post reported that 7.7 percent of black men between the ages of 25 to 54 are institutionalized compared to 1.6 percent of white men. The newspaper also stated that the prison population has quintupled over the past four decades and that one out of nine black children has a parent in prison. Many ex-convicts canÃ¢â¬â¢t vote or get jobs after their release, increasing their chances of recidivism and trapping them in a cycle as relentless as debt peonage. A number of social ills have been blamed for the large numbers of blacks in prison - poverty, single-parent homes and gangs. While these issues may be factors, the Black Codes reveal that since slavery ended those in power have used the criminal justice system as a vehicle to strip African Americans of their liberty. This includes the glaring sentencing disparities between crack and cocaine, a higher police presence in black neighborhoods, and a bail system that requires thoseÃ arrested to pay for their release from jail or remain incarcerated if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re unable to. From slavery onward, the criminal justice system has all too often created insurmountable hurdles for African Americans.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Capital Asset Pricing Model - Assignment Example Usually, the overall volatility of the market is measures through proxies when implementing this model, for instance, the use of FTSE index. Such proxies are not usually the true measures of the market volatility which is at the core of the CAPM assumptions. Therefore, the model estimations from CAPM with use of market proxies for volatility can only predictions that are approximates and not the accurate measures of risk and return relationships. Another unrealistic assumption the CAPM model makes is the existence of a free risk security. In reality, there is not security that is free from risk. Usually, researchers use government security as a risk free security. The truth is while the government may not default (thus considered no risk), other factors such as inflation are uncertain and may impact on the real rate of return. There is also the assumption in the CAPM that the lending and borrowing rates are equal. In reality, this is incorrect as these rates usually differ. The model also makes an assumption that investors will hold highly diversified portfolios. This is not always the case as investors may not hold such highly diversified portfolios and therefore the entire market indices may not be well diversified. This therefor affects the results of CAPM model in estimating market returns. It is therefore unlikely, given these assumptions, that investors behaviour can be accurately explained by this model and also accurately measure the risk of investment. Another limitation of the CAPM model is that given the assumptions it makes, it is difficult to establish its practical validity as well as its empirical validity. Empirical results on whether there is a significant relationship between beta and expected return has been mixed. For instance, some studies have found positive but weak correlations. Others have revealed that returns were not only related to betas but also with other risks such as firm specific risks. Further, other studies find no relationsh ip between beta and returns. Returns have also been found to be highly correlated with other factors such as size of the firms, market and book value ratios, among other factors. These call for need to establish whether beta can be used to measure the risk of securities and whether it is correlated with expected return. Without this, practical and empirical validity cannot be assumed. Another conceptual problem that is linked to validity is the fact that empirical studies on CAPM model have used actual past data and not expected prices to test the model. This introduces bias and there is need to use expected prices to test the model to examine its validity. Another assumption of capital asset pricing model is that betas are assumed to remain stable over time. This is not possible. From the model, beta is a measure of future risk of securities. Investors on the other hand only have past data of share prices and market portfolios, and not future data. Beta can therefore only be estima ted from past data. When past data is used to measure beta, such beta can only be a reliable measure of future risk if it can remain stable over time. This is not possible as studies have found that individual securities do not remain stable over time. Therefore, historical betas are not good predictors of future risk of securities. Describe RollÃ¢â¬â¢s critique of the early empirical tests of the CAPM. Roll has two issues with the CAPM model. The first criticism is stemmed from one of the